"To Be"

dræs n. man
fapevha adj. round
ghan n. ball
sæhne n. officer
veruul n. fool

Rihan has no verb for "to be." It instead uses prefixes and suffixes to express what in English would be expressed by "to be."

"To be" is used in two ways in English. One way is in forming passive verbs. Rihan has a special suffix, -(a)hr, for constructing passive verbs. See the Verb section.

The second way English uses "to be" is as an appositive. An appositive is when two words, either two nouns or a noun and an adjective, equal each other and are separated by a form of the verb "to be," e.g. Bill is the leader. The dog is tired. "Bill" and "leader" refer to the same thing, as does "dog" and "tired", so they equal each other. Bill = leader. Dog = tired.


Rihan expresses appositives in the first and third person with the prefix Ahr'. Ahr' is prefixed to either the adjective or the second noun.

Ahr'sæhne Amarik.
Amarik is an officer.

Ahr'fapevha ghan.
The ball is round.

Ahr' has a plural counterpart: Ahrir'.

Ahrir'sæhnein dræsir.
The men are officers.

Ahrir'fapevhar ghanir.
The balls are round.


The verb prefix ihir- can be used in many of the same situations as ahr'. Adding ihir- to a noun indicates a state of being as that noun, e.g. ihirkiitha, "to be a diplomat," from kiitha, "diplomat." Note that the noun becomes part of the verb itself, thus it does not decline per case or number, but it does conjugate like a normal verb.

Amarik ihirsæhne.
Amarik is an officer.

Dræsir ihirsæhne.
The men are officers.

Dræsir ihirsæhneakhe.
The men were not officers.

Ihir- can be used with the interrogative suffix -difv to ask what someone does/is:

Ihir-difv hwi?
What do you do? What are you? What is your job/function?


For appositives in the second person, Rihan uses the pronoun hwiiy to express the concept of "you are x."

Hwiiy veruul.
You are a fool.

It too has a plural form: hwiiyir

Hwiiyir veruulir.
You all are a fools.


The word Aihr' is used to express "this is x." It is prefixed to the adjective or noun.

This is the officer.

Its plural is Aihrir', meaning "these are."

These are the officers.