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Verb Rules
  • Verb tense exists in either present or past.
    • Three states
      • indicative - non-continuous action. (Past or present)
      • continuative - an action that continues to take place. (Past or present)
      • perfect - an action being completed. (Past or present)
    • Three voices
      • active
      • passive (i.e. The rat was killed by the cat)
      • mediopassive (i.e. The book was not selling)
    • Four moods
      • indicative - statement of fact: "I go."
      • negative - negative statement of fact: "I do not go."
      • subjunctive - irrealis mood: "If I would go."
      • imperative - command/request: "You go!"
  • Verbs do not conjugate for person or number.
  • Conjugations are consistent.

Active voice

Present tense Past tense

Common Progressive Completed Common Progressive Completed
Indicative - +[u]ri +[i]r +n +ari +ar
Negative +[u]khe +[u]khi +[u]kh +akhe +akhi +akh
Subjunctive +[u]te +[u]ti +[u]t +ate +ati +at
Infinitive +er +eri +eir +ehr +ehri +eihr
Participle +anh - - +enh - -

Passive-voice = [a]hr + Active-voice

Present tense Past tense

Common Progressive Completed Common Progressive Completed
Indicative +[a]hr +[a]hr+uri +[a]hr+ir +[a]hr+n +[a]hr+ari +[a]hr+ar
Negative +[a]hr+ukhe +[a]hr+ukhi +[a]hr+ukh +[a]hr+akhe +[a]hr+akhi +[a]hr+akh
Subjunctive +[a]hr+ute +[a]hr+uti +[a]hr+ut +[a]hr+ate +[a]hr+ati +[a]hr+at
Infinitive +an +ari +ar +ahn +ahri +ahr
Participle +ari +eri

Mediopassive-voice = Active-voice + [a]hn

Present tense Past tense

Common Progressive Completed Common Progressive Completed
Indicative +[a]hn +[u]ri+hn +[i]r+ahn +n+ahn +ari+hn +ar+ahn
Negative +[u]khe+hn +[u]khi+hn +[u]kh+ahn +akhe+hn +akhi+hn +akh+ahn
Subjunctive +[u]te+hn +[u]ti+hn +[u]t+ahn +ate+hn +ati+hn +at+ahn
Participle +anh +enh

Modal verb forms
Participle Non-modal To inferior To superior

  +'e (ends in cons., a, , or e)
Imperative +u +i (ends in 'i' or 'o') +n

+o (ends in 'u')


Deriving from other verbs
lli+ Similar to dis+ in English
Creates a negative or reversing force verb form.
dislike - llidrahha
+ri (No direct English equivalent)
Adds a frequent connotation to the verb. "often", "regularly", "steady".
hold-steady - hwyejri